Friday, 30 July 2010

"We Have Learned Nothing from the Genome"-Craig Venter

Ten years ago, Craig Venter had plenty of reason to feel triumphant. Standing at the White House together with his rival Francis Collins of the National Institutes of Health as well as then-President Bill Clinton and former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, he announced the successful sequencing of the human genome. The historic press conference marked the end of a bitter race between Venter's firm Celera and the Human Genome Project, a government-sponsored consortium of around 1,000 scientists from around the world. Both groups had technically mapped the genome, but Venter's team had done it faster and cheaper. Since then, multimillionaire Venter, 63, has established a reputation within the scientific community for being a rebel. It's an image he appears to relish, and he stuns the world again and again with one brash victory after another. He is currently sailing around the world in his Sorcerer II research yacht documenting the genetic diversity of the world's oceans. He recently departed Valencia, Spain, to begin an expedition in the Mediterranean Sea. In May, he announced that his team had produced the world's first bacteria with a synthetic genome. In a SPIEGEL interview, genetic scientist Craig Venter discusses the 10 years he spent sequencing the human genome, why we have learned so little from it a decade on and the potential for mass production of artificial life forms that could be used to produce fuels and other resources.

SPIEGEL: Mr. Venter, when the elite among gene researchers undertook the decoding of the human genome, you were their greatest enemy. They called you "Frankenstein," "blood sucker," "Darth Venter" and even "asshole." Why do you attract so much hostility?

Venter: Well, nobody likes to be beaten -- by superior intelligence, planning and technology. That gets people upset.

SPIEGEL: Every area of science is competitive. But it doesn't lead to that kind of hostility in all areas.

Venter: The human genome project was completely different, it was supposed to be the biggest thing in the history of biological sciences. Billions in government funding for a single project -- we had never seen anything like that before in biology. And then a single person comes along and beats scientists who have been working on it for years. It is no wonder they didn't like that.

SPIEGEL: Wasn't it more the case that your opponents were afraid that you, as a profit-oriented entrepreneur, would make the human genome your own private property?

Venter: That is totally absurd; and you know it. Initially, Francis Collins and the other people on the Human Genome Project claimed that my methods would never work. When they started to realize that they were wrong, they began personal attacks against me and made up these things about the ownership of the genome. It was all absurd.

SPIEGEL: So it was all just propaganda?

Venter: At the end of the day, it is an argument over nothing. But this battle between common good and commerce -- that is the kind of story that sells newspapers.

SPIEGEL: Was the importance of gene patents, which fueled the dispute, exaggerated?

Venter: First of all, nobody has made any serious money off patents on human genes except patent attorneys. Second, I do not hold any patents on human genes. You can do a patent search. Then you can convince yourself.

SPIEGEL: On June 26, 2000, you had a major event -- you met with Francis Collins at the White House …

Venter: … yeah, it was obviously a big historic event. It was pretty stunning, making an announcement at the White House to the entire world. It was a big triumph for me and my team because it proved that we had won.

SPIEGEL: At the time, none of you had won. Nobel Prize recipient John Sulston, one of the researchers of the government-funded genome project wrote …

Venter: … What was his quote? That he and his people were a bunch of phonies who had nothing?

SPIEGEL: In essence, he wrote that you both had nothing.

Venter: He had no idea what we had. Sulston has proven he is not the most credible source on anything other than his own data. He said they were a bunch of phonies, we have to take him at his word on that.

SPIEGEL: It seems to have been the only time in history that a new scientific discovery was announced officially by the government. How did that unusual agreement in the White House take shape?

Venter: It was a political compromise because the people at the public Human Genome Project were afraid we would announce what we had. And we were afraid they would use the White House to make it look like they had won.

SPIEGEL: It appeared at the time that you had agreed to be undecided. Do you now view yourself as the winner of the race?

Venter: I don't think it really matters.

SPIEGEL: The New York Times later declared the public Human Genome Project to be the victor. Can you really claim that you don't care?

Venter: Oh, the New York Times! How do you define the "winner" in this case? What is decisive is that it is our data that is in the databases -- not the data the consortium put together back then.

SPIEGEL: The genome project has been called the Manhattan Project or Moon Landing of its era. It has also been said that knowledge of the genes will change the future of humanity and become a "main driver of the world economy."

Venter: Who said that? I didn't. That was the people at the consortium.

SPIEGEL: You're wrong. You made all those statements in an interview with DER SPIEGEL in 1998.

Venter: Really? Those are Francis Collins' lines. So I may have said that that's how he describes it. I, on the other hand, have always said, "This is a race from the starting line to the finish."

SPIEGEL: The genome project hasn't just raised hopes -- but also worries. Do you understand those concerns?

Venter: Yes. There are two groups of people. People either want to know the information or they prefer to live like an ostrich with their head in the sand, not knowing anything. The fear is based on the ill-founded belief that those who know the DNA sequence also know every aspect of life. This nonsense has been spread by the same geneticists who were afraid of the commercialization of this stuff. From the time of the first few discoveries of gene defects -- Huntington's disease, for example, everybody thought that if you knew your genome, you would know when you would die and what you would die from. That is nonsense.

SPIEGEL: So the significance of the genome isn't so great after all?

Venter: Not at all. I can tell you from my own experience. I put my own genome on the Internet. People had the notion this was the scariest thing out there. But what happened? Nothing.

SPIEGEL: Nevertheless, Jim Watson, the co-discoverer of the DNA double helix, has said he doesn't want to know which variant of the so-called ApoE gene he has -- it could say something about his risk for developing Alzheimer's, and he's afraid of that …

Venter: That was silliness. At that age? Watson is over 80.

SPIEGEL: Are you interested in finding out what ApoE variant you have?

Venter: I know it. And according to it, I have a slightly increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. But it impresses me little because I could have dozens of other genes that counteract it. Because we do not know that, this information is meaningless.

Part 2: 'We Couldn't Even Be Certain from my Genome What My Eye Color Was'

SPIEGEL: And what about the fears about the abuse of gene data through insurers or employers, for example? Do you see that as sheer hysteria?

Venter: Abuse is not a question of whether the data is available. It is an issue of laws. You can't do anything to change the availability of genetic data. Look at this bottle that you have touched -- that's all I need to obtain your entire genetic information.

SPIEGEL: How much would you be able to learn about us by doing so?

Venter: If anything, we don't really know how to read the genome and it can't tell us very much right now. So what's the ethical debate about?

SPIEGEL: The decoding of your personal genome has so far revealed little more than the fact that your ear wax tends to be moist.

Venter: That's what you say. And what else have I learned from my genome? Very little. We couldn't even be certain from my genome what my eye color was. Isn't that sad? Everyone was looking for miracle 'yes/no' answers in the genome. "Yes, you'll have cancer." Or "No, you won't have cancer." But that's just not the way it is.

SPIEGEL: So the Human Genome Project has had very little medical benefits so far?

Venter: Close to zero to put it precisely.

SPIEGEL: Did it at least provide us with some new knowledge?

Venter: It certainly has. Eleven years ago, we didn't even know how many genes humans have. Many estimated that number at 100,000, and some went as high as 300,000. We made a lot of enemies when we claimed that there appeared to be considerably fewer -- probably closer to the neighborhood of 40,000! And then we found out that there are only half as many. I was just in Stockholm for the 200th anniversary of the Karolinska Institute. The first presentation was about the many achievements the decoding of the genome has brought. Then I spoke and said that this century will be remembered for how little, and not how much, happened in this field.

SPIEGEL: Why is it taking so long for the results of genome research to be applied in medicine?

Venter: Because we have, in truth, learned nothing from the genome other than probabilities. How does a 1 or 3 percent increased risk for something translate into the clinic? It is useless information.

SPIEGEL: There are hundreds of hereditary diseases that can be traced to defects in individual genes. You can determine a lot more than just probabilities through them. But that still hasn't led to a flood of new treatments.

Venter: There were false expectations. Take Ataxia telangiectasia, for example, a horrible disease. The nervous system degenerates, and people who have it often die in their early teens. The cause is a defect in a single gene, but it is a developmental gene. If your body is built in the wrong way, then you can't just take a magic pill to rebuild it. If your brain is wired wrong, then it is wired wrong.

SPIEGEL: Who is to blame for those false expectations?

Venter: We were simply always looking at single genes because they were the only genes we had. When people lose their keys at night, they look under the lamp post. Why? Because that's where you can still see something.

SPIEGEL: But the keys are really located in the dark?

Venter: Exactly. Why did people think there were so many human genes? It's because they thought there was going to be one gene for each human trait. And if you want to cure greed, you change the greed gene, right? Or the envy gene, which is probably far more dangerous. But it turns out that we're pretty complex. If you want to find out why someone gets Alzheimer's or cancer, then it is not enough to look at one gene. To do so, we have to have the whole picture. It's like saying you want to explore Valencia and the only thing you can see is this table. You see a little rust, but that tells you nothing about Valencia other than that the air is maybe salty. That's where we are with the genome. We know nothing.

SPIEGEL: Do you think there will be a time when you can extract all this information to yield real medical results?

Venter: For that to happen we need a lot more information: Information about your body's chemistry, your physiology, your complete medical history, your brain and your entire life. We would need to do that a million times on different people and correlate that data with their genetic information.

SPIEGEL: Will that lead in the end to the kind of personalized medicine that genetic researchers have always touted? Each person would get his or her own personal treatment that is tailored precisely to that person's genetic make-up?

Venter: That was another one of these silly naïve notions that was out there. It's not, 'Oh, we know your genome, we're going to make this drug for you.' That will never happen. It is more important that you use the information in the genome about your personal risks and reduce them through intelligent behavior.

SPIEGEL: You have complained about how naïve genome researchers were in the beginning. Will future generations eventually make fun of us in the same way for how naïve we still are today?

Venter: Only time will tell. Nevertheless, we now have what is going to be one of the most important tools for interpreting the human genome: the first synthetic cell. It will enable us to ask questions that would have been inaccessible before.

SPIEGEL: When no progress was made through the reading of the genome, you shifted to rewriting it. You sequenced the entire genome of a bacteria and used it in another cell. How is the microbe you created doing today?

Venter: It's sitting in a freezer, doing extremely well. We'll keep it for the historians.

SPIEGEL: You stored a code in the genome of this cell. Has anyone decoded it?

Venter: Yes, it is the first genome in the world to include an e-mail address. So far, 50 scientists have cracked the code and answered us.

Part 3: 'We Don't Need Any More Neanderthals on the Planet'

SPIEGEL: Many fear what might happen if humans craft new life forms. They repeatedly say that you are playing God …

Venter: Yes, and I find them frightening. I can read your genome, you know? Nobody's been able to do that in history before. But that is not about God-like powers, it's about scientific power. The real problem is that the understanding of science in our society is so shallow. In the future, if we want to have enough water, enough food and enough energy without totally destroying our planet, then we will have to be dependent on good science.

SPIEGEL: Some scientist don't rule out a belief in God. Francis Collins, for example …

Venter: … That's his issue to reconcile, not mine. For me, it's either faith or science - you can't have both.

SPIEGEL: So you don't consider Collins to be a true scientist?

Venter: Let's just say he's a government administrator.

SPIEGEL: When can we anticipate seeing the next tailor-made microbes from your laboratory?

Venter: Well, the goal is multifold. We have to start by creating minimal cells. A human cell is too complex -- we have no idea how any human cell works. We don't even know how the simplest bacterial cell works. We want to learn what the minimum cellular components are, so we're going to be taking out all the non-essential genes. But we're also trying to design new life forms for energy production, capturing carbon dioxide or to produce chemicals.

SPIEGEL: Wouldn't it be easier to modify existing bacteria using the established methods of biotechnology?

Venter: It isn't that simple. For example, there is no other way of creating a minimal cell. You can only add or take out genes at will if you have built the genome from scratch.

SPIEGEL: How long does it take to create such new forms of cells?

Venter: Right now we have the technology to make several a day, and the goal is to make a million a day.

SPIEGEL: How long will it be until the life forms you have created start producing fuel for our cars?

Venter: Not only gasoline. Plastic, asphalt, heating oil: Everything that we make from oil will at some point be made by bacteria or other cells. Whether that is in five, 10 or 20 years is unclear. Why don't we have fuel now other than alcohol from microbes? It's because nothing evolved that can produce great amounts of biofuel out of CO2. That's why we have to make it.

SPIEGEL: ExxonMobile, at the very least, appears to be convinced by your vision …

Venter: … yes, they are investing $600 million in the project, with half going to our partnership. It's a good round number. It's the same money that PerkinElmer gave me to decode the human genome. With it, we sequenced the human genome in nine months instead of many, many years. The public money that flowed into the Human Genome Project, above all, created an enormous, inflexible bureaucracy. And it is only because of private money that we can now sail across the ocean with this sailboat and discover 40 million genes -- there are only 41 million genes known to all of science. All you need are a few innovative ideas and independent funding to allow you to do things that other people can only dream about.

SPIEGEL: It took eight years from the time the first bacterial genome was decoded until the human genome was completed. How much time will elapse between the creation of the first synthetic bacteria and the creation of the first synthetic human?

Venter: There is currently no reason for us to synthesize human cells. I am, for example, a fan of the work that was done a short time ago that led to the decoding of the Neanderthal genome. But we don't need any more Neanderthals on the planet, right? We already have enough of them.

SPIEGEL: Mr. Venter, we thank you for this interview.

Interview conducted by Rafaela von Bredow and Johann Grolle


Thursday, 29 July 2010

कर्णालीबासी! माटो चिनौं

Source: Nagarik Daily, 29 july 2010

काठमाडौंको अमृत साइन्स क्याम्पसमा पढ्दा मेचीदेखि महाकालीसम्मका साथीहरु थिए। 'म कर्णालीवासी' भन्दा उनीहरु अनौठो मान्थे। उनीहरुको बुझाइमा कर्णाली रोग, भोकले आक्रान्त भूगोल थियो। त्यसो त अझै पनि कर्णालीको बाहिरी पहिचान 'पिछडिएको' र 'अभावग्रस्त' ठाउँकै रूपमा स्थापित छ। तर म त्यही कर्णालीमा स्याउखेतीका भरमा सहज जीवनयापन गरिरहेको छु।युवावस्थामा अरूबाट कर्णालीको दुःख सुन्दा र 'विचरा' भनेर कर्णालीप्रति ओठे-दया दर्शाएको पाउँदा गाउँमै बसेर केही गरुँ जस्तो नलागेको हैन। तर के गर्ने भन्ने ठम्याउन सकिरहेको थिइनँ। जब एकपटक घुम्दै भारतको शिमला पुगें, मैले त्यहाँ कर्णालीको सम्भावना फेला पारेँ। जुम्लाकै जस्तो हावापानी भएको शिमला स्याउ खेतीका कारण त्यतिबेलै समृद्ध भइसकेको थियो। शिमलाबाट फर्केपछि दायाँ-बायाँ केही नहेरी म स्याउखेती गर्न थालें।

मेरो पहिलो स्याउ बगैंचा आज ३० वर्ष पुरानो भइसकेको छ। काम गर्दै जाँदा कर्णालीको माटोसँग मेरो अति नै गहिरो विश्वास र घनिष्ठता कायम भयो। परिणामतः मलाई सरकारी अधिकृतको जागिर छोड्न पनि केही जस्तो लागेन। आज आफ्नो बगैंचामा विभिन्न किसिमका स्याउ र अन्य फलफूल देख्दा कर्णालीको माटोप्रतिको विश्वास अझ मजबुत हुँदैछ। आफ्नै पहलमा हाईब्रिड आलु उत्पादन गरेँ। गर्न सके के नहुने रहेछ र! एक रोपनी जग्गाबाट शुरु गरेको स्याउखेती आज ११० रोपनीमा फैलिइसकेको छ। स्याउ खेतीबारे बुझन र अनुसन्धान गर्न देशभरिका मान्छे यहाँ डोरिन थालेका छन् जसरी म ३० वर्ष पहिले शिमलातिर डोरिएको थिएँ।

हो, कर्णालीमा शिक्षा, स्वास्थ्य, सडक जस्ता पूर्वाधारको अभाव छ। तर मेरो विचारमा सबैभन्दा ठूलो खडेरी माटोप्रतिको विश्वासमा छ। यहाँ हेर्दा उजाड लाग्ने भीरपाखा मात्र छैनन्। विश्वकै मीठो भात पाक्ने मार्सी चामल यही फल्छ। जडिबुटीको खानी छ। मूल्यवान् फलफूलको अपार सम्भावना छ। यहाँको माटोमा विश्वास मात्रै गरे पनि धेरै कर्णालीवासीहरु आफैं समृद्ध हुनसक्छन्। यस्ता सम्भावनाहरुलाई बेवास्ता गरेर पराइमुखी भइरहने हो भने त सधैँ तराईको चामल पर्खेर भोको पेट नै बाँच्नुपर्छ।

कर्णालीका धेरै हतास युवाहरु दिल्ली र हिमाञ्चलका गल्लीमा आफ्नो भाग्य खोजिरहेका भेटिन्छन्। जबकि म भन्छु, हामी कर्णालीवासी जति भाग्यमानी कोही छैन! हामीमा केवल नयाँ सोच, सीप र मेहनतको खाँचो छ। सिङ्गो कर्णालीलाई मेरो जस्तै बगैँचाले ढाक्न सकिन्छ। मेरो यौटा बगैंचाले २० जनालाई काम दिइरहेको छ। सिङ्गो कर्णालीलाई बगैंचा बनाउन सके सम्पूर्ण कर्णालीवासीलाई यहीँ रोजगारी जुर्छ। यो मेरो कर्णालीको माटोप्रतिको विश्वासको उपज हो।

कर्णालीका लागि कर्णालीवासीको मेहनतका अतिरिक्त राज्यले पनि केही गर्नुपर्छ। अहिलेको जस्तो कर्णालीको नाममा मीठा नारा जप्न छोडेर राम्रो सडक सञ्जाल, सीप र ज्ञान कर्णालीका बासिन्दालाई दिनै पर्छ। कर्णालीको माटोसँग त्यस्तो क्षमता छ, जसले सिङ्गो राष्ट्रलाई नै केही दिन सक्छ। तर कर्णालीको माटोको क्षमता बाहिर ल्याउन कर्णालीबासी र सरकारको हात मिल्नु जरुरी छ। अनि त्योभन्दा पनि पहिले कर्णालीवासीले आफ्नो माटो चिन्नु र त्यसमा विश्वास गर्नु आवश्यक छ।

विकासको प्राथमिकता अब कर्णालीको माटोमा उत्पादन बढाउने हुनुपर्छ। कर्णालीको माटोको विश्वासले नेपाललाई मात्र हैन, भारतको हिमाञ्चल र बिहार अनि चीनको तिब्बतलाई सम्म फलफूल र जडिबुटी आपूर्ति गर्न सक्छ। त्यतिबेला कर्णालीको माटोले कर्णालीलाई मात्र हैन, सिङ्गो देशलाई आर्थिक रूपले सबल बनाउँछ। यो मेरो तीस वर्षको अनुभवको निष्कर्ष हो, जुन मेरो जीवनको विश्वास पनि बनिसकेको छ।


Saturday, 24 July 2010

महिलाका बाटाका काँडा र फूलहरु

-by आशा खत्री

"श्रीमान्को रोगको उपचार गर्न नसकेपछि एक महिलाले नौमहिने बालकसहित एउटै डोरीमा झुन्डिएर आत्महत्या गरेकी छिन् " सावन्, २०१०, नयापत्रिका दैनिक

यो समाचार पढे पछी हामी नेपाली महिला हाम्रो परिबेश अनी हाम्रो अवस्था समस्या को बारेमा जानी नजानी केही भावना हरु लेख्न मन लाग्यो देशमा कती नेपाली महिला हरु छन् जो आफ्नो श्रीमान् को दयनिय अवस्था देखेर केही गर्न नसकी आत्महत्या जस्तो गलत बाटो अपनाउदछन अनी यही समाज हो जहाँ कोही कोही आफ्नो श्रीमान् लाई मारेर अर्को मान्छेसित बिहे गर्ने सपना पनि देखी रहेका हुन्छन (हाल्सालै मैनाबगरमा आफ्नो श्रीमान् लाई मार्न सहयोगी भूमिका खेल्ने माओवादी छापामार को समाचार )

यि दुई भिन्न परिबेश भिन्न समाचार ले एक नारी भित्र रहेको फरक फरक रुप, भावना बिचार लाई प्रतिबिम्बित गर्दछ नारी शक्ती कि पुन्जी हुन नारी संसार भरी कि पुज्य बिम्ब हुन, किनकी नारी भित्र त्याग समर्पण को बेमिसाल मिश्रण श्रीमान् को उपचार गर्न नसक्ने बिवस्ता भित्र लुकेको उन्को पीडा, अनी श्रीमान् को दु: देख्न नसक्ने उन्को भावना जती पवित्र , जती अनुकरणिय , उन्ले चालेको कदम चाँही गलत तर एक अनपढ महिला जस्को संसार प्रती को दृष्टिकोण सागुरो , जस्को आफ्नो संसार तेही श्रीमान् को हासिखुशी मा मात्रै सिमित अनी उन्ले के गरुन बिचरी महिला हकहित मा ठुला ठुला परवचन दिने, देश - बिदेश बाट मनग्य बिधा को पोको सर्टिफिकेटको भारी बोकेका हरु को पनि अवस्था त्यो भन्दा फरक केही छैन तिनीहरुका असीमित ज्ञानका पोका हरु यि यस्ता दुखी दिदी बहिनिहरु को मुहारमा परिवर्तन ल्याउन होइनकी आफै जान्ने, आँफै सुन्ने, आफ्नै सुखशयल को महल ठडयाउने कम्जोर अशक्त देखे भने खिजयाउने भन्दा भिन्न केही देख्न सकिएको छैन कम्तीमा अहिलेसम्म !

"मान्छे जती जती पढ्दै अगी बड्दै जान्छ, तेती तेती आत्मकेन्द्रित स्वार्थी हुँदै जान्छ" कम्तीमा यो भनाइ हाम्रो देश को पढेलेखेका नामिगिरामी मानिसहरुमा भने करीब करीब शतप्रतिशत मिल्दछ अहिले सम्ममको मेरो सानो अनुभव भोगाई हरुले पनि उक्त भनाइहरुलाई झुठो साबित गर्न सकेका भने छैनन है ।

राजनीति प्रती मलाई कहिलै विश्वाश भएन र छैन पनि तथापी शैलजा आचार्य, साधना प्रधान, शहाना प्रधान, अनुराधा कोइराला, सिता दाहाल, चित्रलेखा यादवहरुको सफा र सुन्दर बिगत र बर्तमानले अनी उनीहरुको त्याग, तपस्या र समर्पणले सदा खुशी र भावबिहल बनाउछ मलाई । यि ठुला ठाउँमा पुगेका र एउटा सुन्दर ईतिहास बनायीसकेका महान नेपाली महिला हरु सित भेट्ने र उनिहरुबाट प्रेरित हुने अवसर अहिले सम्म मिलेको छैन मलाई। म भेट्न पनि चाहन्न यि महान देवी हरुलाई।। मैले जुन देवीको पारुप कोरेकी छु उहाहरु को बारेमा, तेस्मा निमेश भर कम भएको सुन्न र हेर्न सक्दिन म उहfहरुलाई प्रतेक्ष भेटेर ! यो निस्वार्थ नाता हो । केही लिने र दिने बिचको नाता होइन उहाहरू र मेरो बिच्को । यो हो नाता बिचार र आस्थाको, भग्वान र भक्तको । यि सबै देबीहरु यो स्वार्थी समाज र यही "ठुलो-सानो, हानथाप" जस्तो कुरुप हिलोमा संघर्ष र त्यागको प्रतापले ढकमक्क फुलेका सुन्दर फूलहरु हुन् । उहाँहरु सबैलाई कोटी कोटी प्रणाम् ।

जीवन मा केही नेपाली दिदी बहिनीहरु केही बिदेशी महिला मित्रहरु सित नजीकबाट संगत ब्यवहाँर गर्ने मौका मिल्यो धेरै महिला हरुको सुन्दर बिचार संघर्ष, त्याग तपस्या को बारेमा जान्ने मौका मिल्यो धेरै महिलाहरुको जीवनशैली बिचार मृत्युप्रयन्त सम्झने सदा स्मरणिय रह्यो, भने केही को लाई निमेश भर सम्झदा पनि पीडा दिने (जस्लाई सम्झनु भन्दा बिर्सनु नै सुखद पियारो हुन्छ) रह्यो सुख दु:खमा साथ आँट दिने ति महान् दिदिबहिनी लाई सलाम, ति बिझौने झुसिल्किरा हरुलाई पनि धेरै धेरै सलाम ।।

मेरो जीवन मा सारहै प्रभाव पार्ने महान् महिला हरुमा मेरो स्कुल पढ्दा कि मेरी पियारी साथी ललिता शेरचन सदा अग्रपन्क्तीमा आउछिन त्याग, सँघर्ष, लगन, इमन्दारिता, मेहनत, शाहस कि यि प्रतिमुर्ती लाई एक पल सम्झिदा पनि सुखको अनुभुती हुन्छ मान्छे भएर जन्म लिएको मा गर्ब हुन्छ, भविस्य प्रती आशा विश्वाश थपिएर आउछ ! हे भगवान् संसारमा मेरी साथी ललिता शेरचन जस्तो महान् बिचार भावना भएका साहसि, निस्कपट, निस्वर्थी छोरीहरुलाई नेपालमा धेरै धेरै जन्म देऊ, उनिलाई संसार भरीको खुशी देउ !!

यस्तै महान् दिदिबहिनीहरुको सम्झना गर्दा प्रतिमा देवकोटा, उशा पौडेल, बब्बी पाण्डे लगायत अरु थुप्रै दिदी बहिनी को सम्झना ले पनि हृदय प्रफुल्लित भएर आउछ हरेक दु: सुखमा सदा सहयोग गर्न अगाडि तम्सने, सबै जनाको हित मात्रै चिताउने, रतिभर पनि छलकपट नभएका, सदा दिन मात्र जान्ने, मिलनसार, सफा हृदयकी यि महान् दिदी बहिनीहरु सित केही समय सँगै बिताएका थियौ भन्दा खेरी पनि मन हर्षले प्रफुलित हुन्छ भविस्यमा फेरी ति दिदी बहिनी सित बस्ने दिन कहिले आउँला खै ! उहाँ उहाहरु जस्तै महिलाहरुले गर्दा हो अहिलेको जमाना मा पनि मानवियता मर्न घट्न नदिएको शायद बच्चै देखिको लालन पालन को असल प्रभाव ले होला उहाँहरुमा मणितुल्य गुणहरुले भरिपूर्ण भएको उहाहरुमा रहेको गुण हरुको दशान्स मात्रै सबैमा भईदिय यो सुन्दर संसार अझै कती सुन्दर हुन्थ्यो होला ! उहाहरुको तेही दशान्स (/१०) गुणहरुलाई भएपनी हृदयको गहिराईबाट नै पछयाउने प्रयास गरिरहनेछु ! म मेरी पियारी छोरी आरजुमा पनि उहाँहरुको जस्तो सदगुणहरुले भरिपूर्ण भएको हेर्ने अभिलाषा राख्दछु ।


Monday, 19 July 2010

Doctoral Position in Grassland Productivity

Doctoral Position
“Grassland productivity and herbage production along a gradient of plant
diversity and management intensity”

Recent research has demonstrated the potential benefit of plant species diversity for ecosystem functioning of grasslands. As an example, the above-ground biomass production has been shown to significantly increase with plant species number and it has been suggested that this finding should be utilized to develop sustainable grassland production systems. However, the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning has been established on experimental grasslands on ex-arable land where the swards had been sown and the species number maintained by weeding. So far, there is little information available on whether the findings are applicable to permanent grasslands, which build the vast majority of grasslands in Central Europe. A research project has been set up to investigate the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning on permanent grasslands with different management intensities. We are seeking a PhD candidate to join this research.

MSc or Diploma degree in agriculture or related

knowledge in grassland science, vegetation ecology.

and conditions
Salary is 1365 Euro per month. Start date: April 1, 2010. The position is three years.
and contact for further information
Applicants should send their CV, certificates and other documents in one single pdf-file to
Prof. Dr. J. Isselstein, Grassland Science, Department of Crop Sciences,
Von-Siebold-Str. 8, 37075 Göttingen, P +49 551 3922253, E-Mail

Friday, 16 July 2010

Jhamak Kumari Ghimire: the pride of Nepal

Despite of her physical disability and formal education, she is the one of the prominent writer of Nepal. She has never attended any kind of school, but she learned everything by hearing the words and sentences that her sister used to read. But, she is the regular columnist in Nepal's most popular Daily newspaper, Kantipur. Besides, she has published many more on different aspects of literature.

Her both hands are unable to do anything, and she cannot speak. She has the very problematic disease called Cerebral Palsy. She is one of the top ten renowned persons in the whole world who has been suffered with this disease.

As the pride of nation, we would like to extend our deep gratitudes to her and her tireless endeavors to make our literature renowned and rich. Read more...

Monday, 12 July 2010

Diego Forlan: won the best player of the World Cup

Diego Forlan thumped his right boot against the advertising hoarding in Suwon. The 23-year-old striker's frustration was understandable. He had just spurned a glorious chance to score for Uruguay against Senegal. It was ultimately one that cost his country a 4-3 victory and a place in the Round of 16 of the 2002 FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan™.

That miss was unsurprising to the Manchester United fans who had just begun watching him on a regular basis. Forlan, after all, was in the midst of a run of 27 goalless games before he broke his duck for the club. Many back in June 2002 might have questioned whether the player would ever appear on football's most prestigious stage again. Nobody envisaged that he would one day illuminate it.

But that is exactly what Forlan, whose country failed to qualify for the 2006 finals, did in South Africa. And his remarkable efforts in the Celeste jersey have been rewarded with the FIFA World Cup's top individual prize, the adidas Golden Ball previously won by the likes of Diego Maradona, Romario, Ronaldo and Zinedine Zidane.

Forlan scored five goals during the competition to go second on his country's list of all-time leading marksmen and propel Uruguay on an unforeseen run to the semi-finals. That, along with his cute through-balls and clever movement, proved enough to earn him 23.4 per cent of the vote, which was made by members of the media during the Final between Spain and the Netherlands. Wesley Sneijder and David Villa, with 21.8 per cent and 16.9 per cent respectively, seized the adidas Silver and Bronze Balls respectively.

"It is as amazing as it is unexpected," enthused Forlan after becoming the first recipient of the adidas Golden Ball to have not played in the Final. "I never thought something like this would be possible. I might have dreamt about competing for the Golden Boot, which would have been conceivable, but to be named the best player is just incredible. I will enjoy it. I am happy but I know I owe this to the spectacular accomplishments of the whole team. It's a prize that demonstrates what a good time it is for Uruguayan football."

Uruguay's success story seemed hugely unlikely heading into the penultimate round of South American qualifying. The out-of-sorts Celeste faced an uphill struggle to finish fifth in the ten-team group and duly go into a play-off for a place in South Africa. Sixty-eight minutes into their game in Ecuador, that uphill struggle was further complicated when the hosts took the lead. Uruguay required victory and, after Luis Suarez equalised, Forlan held his nerve and dispatched a late penalty to snatch the result that ultimately proved enough to book a play-off date with Costa Rica, which they won.

Still, Uruguay were outsiders to advance from a group that featured France and Mexico, two teams above them on the FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking, and a South Africa side buoyed by their vibrant fans and the fact that no host nation had ever failed to reach the knockout phase. After a goalless draw with France, in which Forlan impressed with his elusive movement and ability to hold the ball up, the Atletico Madrid player scored a superb goal to break the deadlock against South Africa. He then coolly buried a penalty to put the game beyond Bafana Bafana's reach en route to a 3-0 victory.

Forlan had a hand in the Suarez goal that secured Uruguay victory over Mexico and top spot in their pool, and then he created his strike partner's first in a 2-1 defeat of Korea Republic in the Round of 16. The former Independiente attacker then excelled against Ghana in the last eight, scoring a sumptuous free-kick in a 1-1 draw, and scoring his side's first penalty in the shoot-out they won 4-2.

Uruguay fell 3-2 to the Netherlands in the last four. Defeat was, however, no reflection on Forlan's performance. With the South Americans losing 1-0 and his team-mates' heads down, he thumped home another brilliant goal from distance to bring them back into the game, and was an incessant source of torment to the Dutch thereafter. The match for third place was a parallel tale: Uruguay lost, Forlan thrived. His penchant for wonder goals continued, this time an exquisite volley putting Las Charrúas 2-1 up before Joachim Low's side rallied for a 3-2 victory.

Uruguay's players had narrowly missed out on medals, but one prize would land in the hands of their blond forward. The stacked sanctuary of FIFA World Cup greats had a new, unexpected entrant.


Best Young Player shortlist announced

(out of these three contenders, Thomas Mueller won the best young player of this world cup: congratulation to him and all the supporters of German football)

Also, best scorer
adidas Golden Boot: Thomas Muller (Germany) - 5 goals, 3 assists
Thomas Muller's opening goal for Germany against Uruguay in the third-place play-off proved enough to earn the Bayern Munich starlet the adidas Golden Boot. Muller finished on five goals at the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, but claimed the top scorer accolade thanks to no fewer than three assists, leaving him ahead of Spain marksman David Villa and Dutch hitman Wesley Sneijder, both of whom finished on five goals but with only one assist apiece.
Hyundai Best Young Player: Thomas Muller (Germany)
The Germany forward rates as the biggest discovery of the 2010 FIFA World Cup™. The Bayern Munich youngster has hit the headlines on and off the field, with five goals and three assists, and any number of quotable comments for waiting reporters. After just one season in the Bayern first team, the 20-year-old has become the darling of the German football scene, and provided all the evidence the FIFA Technical Study Group required to name him Best Young Player of the tournament. Practically the only blemish on Muller's record at the finals was his yellow card in Germany’s meeting with Argentina, causing him to miss his side’s semi-final defeat to Spain due to suspension. Muller succeeds fellow German Lukas Podolski as winner of the Best Young Player award, testament to the outstanding youth development programmes run by the German FA (DFB)

FIFA’s Technical Study Group (TSG) today announced the shortlist for the Hyundai Best Young Player Award consisting of the three best young players in this year’s FIFA World Cup™. The award continues the tradition of officially recognising the positive impact made by young footballers and is open to all participating players born on or after 1 January 1989. The final winner will be selected by the FIFA TSG and announced on after the 2010 FIFA World Cup™ Final. The winner will receive the coveted Hyundai Best Young Player Award trophy and a new Hyundai Tucson ix 35.

The emergence of young footballing talent on the world stage is one of the joys of any FIFA World Cup and the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa is no exception. These burgeoning young stars may have been relatively unknown before the opening ceremony in Johannesburg, but there is little doubt that the three nominated for the prestigious Hyundai Best Young Player Award shortlist can become household names for many years to come.

All three of the young players shortlisted today have demonstrated exceptional skills during the tournament as well as youthful and refreshing playing styles combined with tactical maturity. Furthermore, their creativity has served as an inspiration to all and earned fan recognition for their performances.

The Hyundai Best Young Player Award is one of the official FIFA awards and is selected by the Technical Study Group, a FIFA-appointed group of top football coaches and analysts, whose director Jean-Paul Brigger is a former Swiss international, Swiss domestic league champion with FC Sion and the country’s Player of the Year in 1992. He is also a five-time winner of the Swiss Cup and was named Swiss coach of the year in 1995. Other prominent members of the TSG are Christian Karembeu, Gérard Houllier, Holger Osieck, Kalusha Bwalya and Ephraim Matsilele “Jomo” Sono.

Nominees for the Hyundai Best Young Player Award at the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa:

Thomas Mueller (GER): Thomas Mueller’s rapid rise through the senior football ranks has been nothing short of remarkable. A fringe player with his club, Bayern Munich, just two seasons ago, and with a first international cap coming only in March of this year (presciently, a friendly against Argentina), the 20-year-old striker has captured the imagination of fans everywhere with his pulsating approach play and vital goals (4) and assists (3).

Giovani Dos Santos (MEX): Still only 21, Giovani Dos Santos is one of the most famous faces in the Mexico squad. “Gio”, who played much of the most recent club season on loan to Turkish side Galatasaray, burst on to the scene aged 16 when he showed prodigious technique and vision in helping Mexico to victory in the FIFA U-17 World Cup in Peru in 2005. The super-nimble young forward has become a key cog in the attractive Tricolor team and looks sure to be around for years to come.

Andre Ayew (GHA): The son of Black Stars legend Abedi Pele, ”Dede” Ayew is used to living his young life in the footballing spotlight and he has handled the attention with great poise. He already became a world champion with the U-20s in Ghana last year. As an attacking midfielder, Ayew has become an important part of Ghana’s playing system with a successful pass rate of 85 per cent Read more...

Diego Forlan (Uruguay): Best Player of the World Cup 2010

Does this prize help make up for Uruguay not finishing on the podium?

I’m very happy about this award and the goals I scored, but to be honest I’m heading home a little sad because, having watched the Final, it hit me how close we were to playing in it. Losing the semi-final was a really cruel blow, which took me a couple of days to get over and which I still find hard to swallow.

Are you looking forward to having the Golden Ball in your hands?

If there was one thing lacking from Diego Forlan’s stellar performance here at the 2010 FIFA World Cup™ it was a piece of silverware, particularly after the deadly striker just missed out on clinching the adidas Golden Shoe for the competition’s top scorer. No matter, the inspirational Uruguayan No10 instead made off with the coveted adidas Golden Ball – awarded to the finest player at this year’s finals on South African soil.

Forlan thus becomes the fourth South American to claim the prize, following in the footsteps of Argentina’s Diego Maradona (1986) and Brazilian duo Romario (1994) and Ronaldo (1998). Just minutes after learning of his award, the Atletico Madrid hitman spoke exclusively to Diego, how does it feel to have won the Golden Ball?
Diego Forlan: It’s as great as it is unexpected. I never even imagined something like this, nor did I have my sights set on it. As I’m a striker, I perhaps could have seen myself chasing the Golden Shoe, and in fact I came close. That would have been more normal. But to go from that to winning the prize for the best player... I’m enjoying it and I’m delighted, but I’m very aware that it’s the result of the spectacular tournament the team has had. It’s another reward for this positive period for Uruguayan football.

How did you find out you’d won?
To be honest, after I was nominated I decided to wait and see what happened, especially as there were rumours that I might win but nobody was revealing anything. Then I got a message from a friend in Buenos Aires which said “Congratulations, you’ve won the Golden Ball.” Then my agent called me and confirmed it. I started getting more calls and suddenly all my squad-mates had charged into my room, and before I knew it they’d chucked me into the hotel swimming pool!

And yet you’re dedicating it to the people who did that to you...
It was incredible how they all came to my room to congratulate me. The fact that my team-mates and a lot of people back home in Uruguay pinned their hopes on me, and I was able to repay that faith out on the pitch while being just another member of the team, makes me feel very happy. I’d also like to highlight those lads who didn’t play much or didn’t feature at all. Those guys make up the backbone of the squad and this award is for them too.

Do you ever worry receiving this kind of recognition will go to your head?
I’ve won other awards during my career and I’m very grateful, but I don’t let them stop my feet from staying on the ground. I’ve got parents who taught me key values and brothers and sisters who help me stay on the right path. Everything is the result of hard work, so I’ll keep working to try and improve.

I’ve not had much time to find out about that, but I gather that they’ll give me it in Zurich. I must admit that I’d have liked to have flown back to Uruguay with it! There’s no doubt it would have been the icing on the cake at the party they’re waiting to throw for us back in our country.

If you keep picking up awards, you’ll end up with no room on your mantelpiece soon...
It’ll definitely look good next to my two Pichichi awards for top scoring in the Spanish league! (laughs) We’ll find a good place for it, I’m sure of that.

Finally, were Spain worthy champions?
No doubt about it. They played the best football over the course of the tournament, they managed to bounce back quickly from their defeat against Switzerland and they always looked to take the initiative. Let me take this opportunity to congratulate their players and coaching staff. Let’s hope one day it happens to us too!


Sunday, 11 July 2010

Sunday, 4 July 2010

Super Deutschland....Super Deutschland.....Super Deutschland

These are some vide clips to all of you after astonishing victory of Germany over socalled mighty Argentina. This is the victory of team game over individuals, it is the victory of tolerancy, hard work and desciplined over rumour, propoganda and indesplined team. To win any game, there should be hardwork, dedication and better cooperation among team members rather than the gossips and verbal words to pick up the stars from sky. If we have to judge the performance of Argentinian teams yesterday, we can say that they played equal to our national team. Even our Jumanu Rai can perform better than Lionel Messi, and our team better than Argentina. Might it be little overexaggeration to our team, but if you really evaluate the team performances witout any hiphop, then you will find truth upon this statement!Anyway, enjoy following clips recorded at small university town of Goettingen, after Germany rooted out socalled football powerhouse, Argentina....

Super...Super...Super Deutschland...